LeetCode  Swap Nodes in Pairs
Problem statement
Given a linked list, swap every two adjacent nodes and return its head. You must solve the problem without modifying the values in the list's nodes (i.e., only nodes themselves may be changed.)
Problem statement taken from: https://leetcode.com/problems/swapnodesinpairs
Example 1:
Input: head = [1, 2, 3, 4]
Output: [2, 1, 4, 3]
Example 2:
Input: head = []
Output: []
Example 3:
Input: head = [1]
Output: [1]
Constraints:
 The number of nodes in the list is in the range [0, 100].
 0 <= Node.val <= 100
Explanation
Swapping links
Since the node values cannot be swapped, changing links is a better idea in general.
Algorithm
 if head == NULL  head>next == NULL
 return head
 set ListNode* prev = head
ListNode* curr = head>next
 set head = curr and initialize ListNode* next
 loop while true
 set next = curr>next
 point curr>next = prev
 if next == NULL  next>next == NULL
 set prev>next = next
 break // break the loop
 point prev>next = next>next
 set prev = next
 set curr = prev>next
 return head
The time complexity of the above program is O(N) where N is the number of nodes in a given linked list.
C++ solution
class Solution {
public:
ListNode* swapPairs(ListNode* head) {
if(head == NULL  head>next == NULL){
return head;
}
ListNode* prev = head;
ListNode* curr = head>next;
head = curr;
ListNode* next;
while(true){
next = curr>next;
curr>next = prev;
if(next == NULL  next>next == NULL){
prev>next = next;
break;
}
prev>next = next>next;
prev = next;
curr = prev>next;
}
return head;
}
};
Golang solution
func swapPairs(head *ListNode) *ListNode {
if head == nil  head.Next == nil {
return head
}
prev := head
curr := head.Next
head = curr
for true {
next := curr.Next
curr.Next = prev
if next == nil  next.Next == nil {
prev.Next = next;
break;
}
prev.Next = next.Next;
prev = next;
curr = prev.Next;
}
return head
}
Javascript solution
var swapPairs = function(head) {
if( head == null  head.next == null ){
return head;
}
let prev = head;
let curr = head.next;
head = curr;
while(true){
let next = curr.next;
curr.next = prev;
if(next == null  next.next == null){
prev.next = next;
break;
}
prev.next = next.next;
prev = next;
curr = prev.next;
}
return head;
};
Let's dryrun our algorithm to see how the solution works.
Input: head = [1, 2, 3, 4]
Step 1: if (head == NULL  head>next == NULL )
 false
Step 2: ListNode* prev = head
ListNode* curr = head>next
prev

head  [1, 2, 3, 4]

curr
Step 3: head = curr
prev

[1, 2, 3, 4]

curr,
head
Step 4: ListNode* next
Step 5: loop while true
 next = curr>next
 next = 3
 curr>next = prev
 curr>next = 1
 if next == null  next>next == null
 false
 prev>next = next>next
 prev>next = 4
 prev = next
 prev = 3
 curr = prev>next
 curr = 4
Step 6: loop while true
 next = curr>next
 next = nil
 curr>next = prev
 curr>next = 3
 if next == null  next>next == null
 true
 break
So the answer is 2 > 1 > 4 > 3